Ambarish Sridharanarayanan

Personal website + blog of Ambarish Sridharanarayanan.

๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘

โ€ขambarishโ€ขsanskrit

๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œค๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œถ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ เฅค

๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘€ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘€ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ—๐‘€๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘€ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘€ เฅค
๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œƒ เฅฅ

๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œš๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œซ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค

๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฅ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘‹๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘‡ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘ˆ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œฒ๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค

๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘‹๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œค๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œค ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ เฅค ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œถ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œช๐‘‡๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ—๐‘ƒ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œน๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡ เฅค1

๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ

  • ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œถ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œถ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œ•๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œ–๐‘Œ ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œ›๐‘Œ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘ˆ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘‹๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘ˆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œต๐‘Œง๐‘‡๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œค๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘ˆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œš๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‹๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œƒ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œš๐‘Œœ๐‘Œ เฅค ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œญ๐‘Œ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ เฅค ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘€๐‘Œต ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘‹๐‘Œญ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œท๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ2 ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œต เฅค ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œท๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œท๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œถ๐‘‹๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ Wikipedia๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ3 เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฃ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œช๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘ŒŠ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œš๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œท๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ ๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œท๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œš๐‘Œถ๐‘‹๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œš๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œช๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘ŒŠ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œš๐‘‡๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œ›๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œต๐‘ˆ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘‹ (retroflex) ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ เฅค ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œถ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘€๐‘Œญ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘Œ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œช๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œถ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œซ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ˜๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš เฅค ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘ŒŠ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œถ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘€๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œธ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œƒ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œž๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ๐‘Œท ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œœ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฒ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œž๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œž๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œˆ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘‡๐‘Œ•๐‘‡ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ˜๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘‡๐‘Œต ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‹๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œž๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค4
  • ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‹๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œš๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œต ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘€๐‘Œ˜๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘‹ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ (liquid consonant) ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œญ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œš๐‘€๐‘Œจ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œท ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œƒ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš เฅค ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ (phonetic languages) เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘ˆ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œš๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œน๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œš๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘€๐‘Œš๐‘€๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค5 ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œ›๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œต๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œต๐‘Œ—๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฃ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ—๐‘‹๐‘Œฒ๐‘€๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œ–๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ (closed central unrounded vowel) ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ ๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ˜๐‘€๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œต เฅค ๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ เฅค

๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ

  • ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ ๐‘Œ–๐‘Œฒ๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ข๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œญ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘6 เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œจ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘‹ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ™๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘€ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘‹๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘‹๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘‹ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ7 เฅค
  • ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œต๐‘Œ—๐‘Œ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ˜๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘€๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ–๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘‡๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œต๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ˜๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œก๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œž๐‘ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œก๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œž๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‹๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‹๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œš๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ เฅค ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œค๐‘ƒ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ เฅค ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œธ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ–๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘‡๐‘Œ–๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œถ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œฒ๐‘€ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ… ๐‘Œ… ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฌ๐‘‹๐‘Œง๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘€ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œต๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œซ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘€๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘‹ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œต๐‘ˆ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ8 ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ9 เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘€๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‚๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‚๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œต ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ เฅค

๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ

  • ๐‘Œณ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œณ๐‘Œก๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ›๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ ๐‘Œณ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œณ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œณ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œต๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œจ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œค ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ (w) ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œฒ๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œธ๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘‡๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘‡๐‘Œต ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ•๐‘€ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘‡ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œน๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฎ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œน๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œˆ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ•๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œง๐‘‹๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘10 ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œš๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œญ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œง๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œฃ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘‹ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œธ ๐‘Œš ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œš๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œน๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œน๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš เฅค ๐‘Œ๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ  ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œน ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ˜๐‘‹๐‘Œท๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œน๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œต๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฃ๐‘๐‘Œ ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ˜๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš เฅค ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œฒ๐‘‹๐‘Œš๐‘Œจ๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค
  • ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œธ๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œต๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œจ๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค

เฅฅ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅฅ


  1. ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘€๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘Œฃ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘‡๐‘Œ–๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅคย 

  2. ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‡ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘‡๐‘Œถ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅคย 

  3. Wikipedia on places of articulationย 

  4. ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ (non-Indic scripts) ๐‘Œฒ๐‘‡๐‘Œ–๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ (transliteration schemes) ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ ITrans๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘€ เฅค ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œญ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œž๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘‚๐‘Œš๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ‚ โ€˜gyโ€™ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œˆ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต ITrans ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œช๐‘‡๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ISO-15919 ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘ŒŸ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œช๐‘Œฏ๐‘๐‘Œœ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅค ๐‘Œธ ๐‘Œš ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œ—๐‘‡๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅคย 

  5. ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ—๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œš๐‘๐‘Œš๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฃ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ ๐‘Œ‹๐‘Œท๐‘Œญ ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅคย 

  6. ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œ—๐‘๐‘Œน๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ย 

  7. ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œš ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘‹ ๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œช๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œต๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œง๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œซ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ เฅค ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œต๐‘ˆ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฒ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œธ ๐‘Œš ๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ เฅค ๐‘Œค๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฌ๐‘๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œญ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œฎ เฅค ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œจ๐‘‚๐‘Œค๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œค๐‘Œต๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ†๐‘Œธ๐‘€๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œญ๐‘Œต๐‘Œค๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œ‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘€๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ‰๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œถ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œ•๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฒ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‚๐‘Œช๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œค๐‘Œพ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘ƒ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฐ ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œต๐‘€๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œš๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œน๐‘๐‘Œจ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œฃ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅค ๐‘Œช๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œพ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘‡๐‘Œต๐‘Œจ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ—๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œฎ๐‘๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œง ๐‘Œ๐‘Œต ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฅ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‡๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘Œƒ ๐‘ŒŒ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘‡๐‘Œซ๐‘Œถ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œช๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘Œฏ๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‡๐‘Œท๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œฎ๐‘ เฅคย 

  8. Wikipedia on alveolar consonantsย 

  9. ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œค๐‘€๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘Œพ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œ…๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‡ ๐‘Œ•๐‘ƒ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œ‚ ๐‘Œจ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œพ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œฏ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฟ ๐‘Œช๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘ ๐‘Œฒ๐‘Œ™๐‘๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฅ๐‘ˆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œฆ๐‘๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œฎ๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œก๐‘ˆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ ๐‘Œญ๐‘‡๐‘Œฆ๐‘Œƒ ๐‘Œธ๐‘Œ‚๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œ•๐‘๐‘Œท๐‘Œฟ๐‘Œค๐‘‹ ๐‘Œฐ๐‘Œพ๐‘Œœ๐‘Œค๐‘‡ เฅคย 

  10. ๐‘Œ๐‘Œ•๐‘Œพ๐‘Œš๐‘‹ ๐‘Œฌ๐‘Œถ๐‘‹ ๐‘Œญ๐‘Œท๐‘ ๐‘Œ๐‘Œท๐‘Œจ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œฏ ๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘๐‘Œต๐‘‹๐‘Œƒ เฅค ๐‘Œ๐‘Œท๐‘Œธ๐‘๐‘Œค๐‘Œฅ๐‘‹๐‘Œฐ๐‘๐‘Œง๐‘‹๐‘Œง๐‘Œƒ เฅคย